Vampire the Requiem Homebrew Bloodlines
Homebrew Bloodlines for Vampire: The Requiem.
Leucocytes: Fucking with yo LiquidsEdit
Blood is extremely similar to water. 60% of all the volume of blood in the human body is plasma, which is basically almost completely water with some proteins floating about.
The theory behind the bloodline is a simple one: Plasma is as much of a component of human blood as the red cells and the hemoglobin and the whatnot, but, if it were separated, could it be just as nourishing? Imagine, drinking the blood of your ghoul and taking only his plasma. He would suffer no lethal damage, and the only downside would be a slight thirstiness!
To that end, the bloodline studies liquid in all its forms, and no better way to do this then by turning themselves into living blood cells? When daytime comes, they merge with the water, going with the flow, whereever it takes them. In doing so, they They're not a nomadic clan, though. Their ties with the Ordo Dracul is too strong to move them too far, so these kindred usually keep to localized streams that and lakes that dump their corpses into local reservoirs, so they don't awaken miles from their colleagues. The Blood changes them, though. Vampires are parasites, through and through, and though their clan weakness is merely a facsimile of traveling through the vein, it seems as though the rivers recognize them as intruders and actively repel them, fish and plant life semi-activally attacking the vampire as he floats by. For that reason, most Leucoytes take the Haven of Soil discipline, so they can examine how fish react without having chunks of their bodies bitten off bit by bit, in the same manner that the body sends white blood cells after the countless bacteria spawning among the dark, sweeping tunnels of the human body.
Though the bloodline has ties to the Ordo Dracul, their founder was, in reality, an adherent of the Circle of the Crone. A surgeon in germany during the middle ages, his embrace was pierced with his mortal knowledge of circulation. His own logic became twisted as years passed. He saw vitae as stagnant blood that needed to flow. He became crazed, obsessed with his understandings of the lymphatic system, obsessed with following flowing water to the vampiric equivalent of the fountain of youth, the "Heart of the World". He wanted to find revolution. He would swim and swim, hoping in his insanity that he could trick the world into believing he was blood himself, fool reality into allowing him access to this forbidden realm. He was driven by the analogy he had become, so much so that it transformed him into the founder of his own bloodline. He told his childer of his theories: That it would flow into the Garden of Eden, where humanity had been spawned. Maybe it would lead him to a massive lake of purest vitae. Maybe it led to Golconda. He himself fervently believed that the heart was the Crone herself, and he arrogantly bragged about how he would diablerize her and become an unliving god. In fear that their crazed sire had broken the rule of Amarath, his childer killed him, lest discovery and punishment fall on their heads as well. The founder was soon forgotten by the bloodline, which had, since then, been more or less absorbed into the Ordo. They had, since then, grown a reputation as some of the finest scholars in the Coils of Blood for their unique insight on the transformation of mundane human blood to that of magical vitae, an embrace that happens on a molecular level. However, on a occasion, one of these vampires suddenly has a notion to go for a swim, as if he were looking for something...
Cardiac Delivery: •Edit
Duration: One Scene
The Vitae in the vampires body recognizes its place among the rivers, and instinctively follows the flow. The vampire takes a deep breath (Though vampires do not need to breathe, the gasp is ritualistic, as the point of blood is to deliver oxygen to various parts of the body), and begins to swims at twice his regular speed every turn, and receives 9-again to all rolls related to maneuvering in water. He cannot swimming against the current unless it's slow enough for a regular person to be able to go against without any problems. The discipline ends when he exhales. While the discipline is active, local fish tend to become slightly more aggressive towards the vampire, which serves his needs just as well, as their tendency to swim withing arms reach to nibble at him makes them an easy meal for a fledgling. However, unless the vampire is swimming in the rivers of South America or Africa, the damage he takes is probably trivial, maybe a bashing damage per scene at the very worst.
The vampire can drink the Plasma of a victim, rather then his blood. This plasma is stored among with vitae, but is to be marked with a P. This means you can only store Plasma and vitae in your vampires body as your Blood Potency allows you to.
>A vampire with BP 4 can store 13 vitae in his body. If he has 8 already, and drinks 3 Plasma, he has 11 slots filled up. If he drinks 6, then he would have 14, meaning that the final point of plasma is lost.
Every victim has plasma in their body equal to half the amount of blood rounded up. The victim takes no damage from having his plasma drunk, until this threshold is reached. After that, the vampire begins drinking vitae, and the target takes one aggravated damage per vitae taken, and suffers from Anemia for as long as it takes for him to heal the aggravated damage. Vitae is what vampires crave, what their every essence calls out for, so drinking excess vitae replaces Plasma within the body.
Plasma just barely magical, having just a tiny fraction of the properties of vitae. Plasma dissipates from the vampires body in a number of hours equal to his Blood Potency and cannot be used to activate disciplines other then those in Plasmapheresis.
Cost: 1 Plasma
Dice Pool: Plasmapheresis + Occult + Wits vs. Composure + Blood Potency
Cost: 1 Plasma
The Ordo Dracul is no stranger to the methodologies of the ancient Hippocratic medicine. The concepts of various humours in balance controlling the moods of mortals is a quaint theory, but tests done by masters of the Blood, practitioners of Majesty and Nightmare and general alchemists centuries ago proved it to be a falsehood, though a falsehood with a grain of truth. The reality is that while mundane blood does not produces emotions, vampire Blood very much instills an attitude of optimism and courageousness among those who ingest it. Ghouls are seen as evidence of this. As these scholars can't find supernatural beings with an emphasis on Bile or Phlegm, they cannot replicate these tests and ultimately, the Humourism theory is considered inconclusive. Even so, among the theories, the Leucocyte notices that all the various fluids that determine emotions in this theory need plasma, so several Plasmapheresis Alchemists rationalize that in a vampire, the plasma itself is the tool to unlocking emotion. It just has to be tweaked in just the right way...
Humourism is incredibly similar to Majesty, Nightmare and Dominate, as it falls under the same principles of using a hypnotic stare to change the subjects behavior. Most Leucocytes don't even recognize the first time they use this ability, though they definately feel the surge of plasma boiling away when they exert their willpower. Humourism doesn't affects the glands of the subject, black bile and yellow bile and blood and phlegm is not released in quantity. Even so, the subject begins to fixate on a particular emotion. He begins sobbing, becoming cripplingly depressed. He becomes irritable and attacks those who stare at him. He tries to rape the first person he sees. All in all, the subject acts in a self-destructive manner for an amount of turns equal to successes, as the emotion most relivant to the situation takes over him.
Tunica intima et media ••••Edit
Dice Pool: Plasmapheresis + Medicine + Intelligence - Subjects Composure + Blood Potency (If resisting)
Cost: 1 Vitae, 1 Plasma
Named for two types of veins in the body, Tunicia Intima Et Media is a manipulation of the Blood using the plasma it's suspended in. Technically, the discipline is three different effects. However, the method of utilizing the traces of magic in Plasma is essentially the same, merely subtle manipulations of the plasma that controls the flow of the blood, leading scholars of the discipline to categorize it as one. By spending a point of Plasma, the vampire can bestow one of three effects on either himself, a mortal, or a vampire with which he is physically touching.
On another vampire:
The vampire burns a point of vitae without dissipating the liquid, leaving behind Plasma in the wake of vampire magic. "Tunica intima et media" does not allow the Leucocyte to force the vampire to burn it, the vitae must be spent either activating a discipline, waking up, or any other method of expending vitae magically. One success rolled turns one vitae into Plasma, which is stored in the foreign vampires body. Plasma within another vampire can be drunk by the Leucocyte with no risk of vinculum. The vampire is aware that he is not hungry, though he feels unsatisfied, temporary fooling the Beast into believing that it is not hungry, so for the sake of all hunger frenzy rolls the vampire acts as if the points of Plasma are vitae until it burns away in a number of hours equal to the vampires blood potency.
On a mortal
The plasma separates slightly from the subjects blood, but provides no ill effects to the subject. If subject is drank from by the Leucocyte within next five minutes, the feeding need only take a single turn.
On the Leucocyte herself
The Leucocyte burns away a point of Vitae to distill the Plasma already within it. So potent is plasma created by this ritual that it can not only stay within the Leucocytes body indefinitely, but it can also be used as normal vitae for every action except for performing disciplines and waking up. This plasma this way stored transmutes into vitae, having absorbed the lost potency of the blood, upon waking up from torpor.
Dice Pool: Plasmapheresis + Occult + Wits vs. Subjects Stamina + Blood Potency
Cost: 1 Vitae, 1 Plasma, 1 willpower
How ironic is it that water sustains the life of the living, and acts merely a solvent to sustain the unlife of the dead? Practitioners of Plasmapheresis understand that the importance of the lymphatic system is merely a means to an end. From a vampire perspective, it's the powder that flavors the drink that matters, not the liquid that suspends it. In the end, the Leucocyte is still a vampire, and still needs Blood to function, and the bloodline recognizes this predatorial requirement. The final discipline in the line of Plasmapheresis is the ultimate dissolution. The Leucocyte focuses, softly calling to the liquids of his quarry with a guttural noise. Mortal or kindred, and the victim begins sweating, crying, vomiting, defecating and otherwise removing every drop of water in their body. The mortal target suffers aggravated damage equal to the successes the Leucocyte rolled, while the kindred victim loses vitae, which is forced out of their flesh, staining their clothes, moving against their will, dragged along by the whims of a monster who simply wants the liquid out of the body.
- Every point of Plasma within subjects body +2
Price: 8 XP
Cost: One Plasma
Named for blood being delivered to capillaries, the smallest veins in the human body. The Leucocyte becomes as water, and can now swim against currents with no penalties, and enjoys 8-again for an entire scene for all scenes involving maneuvering in water. Even so, he is still solid, and is capable of the manipulation that comes with being the natural state.
The Canon of MedicineEdit
Price: 14 XP
Cost: One Vitae
Dice Pool: Plasmapheresis + Occult + Wits vs. Composure + Blood Potency
As with Humourism, except the vampire decides what the predominate emotion is.
Kiasyd: The WeirdlingsEdit
Not strictly a homebrew, but rather a rough translation with a few alterations (to fit V:tR's theme of uncertain origins) of a rare and peculiar bloodline from V:tM. The Kiasyd work very well if you make them the only vampires to use the version of the Beast found in the Chronicler's Guide entitled "The Other" - it makes them even weirder.
The Kiasyd are an ancient and fey bloodline scattered across the world, predating the Ventrue by hundreds, if not thousands of years. When the Roman Empire expanded and arrived in the British Isles, bringing the Camarilla with them, the Kiasyd were already there; when European settlers arrived in North America and the Ventrue and Deava followed them, the Kiasyd were already there.
Being so ancient, the Kiasyd bloodline, much like the similarly ancient Kallisti bloodline, has the odd property that vampires are embraced as Kiasyd rather than as one of the clans. However, whereas the Kallisti are clearly a bloodline of Clan Daeva, the Kiasyd appear to either be a forgotten clan in their own right (much like the Julii of whom a few may still stalk the night), or have outlived their parent clan; the truth may never be known. Any newborn Nosferatu will attest that the Embrace is not a pleasant affair, and if a Kiasyd deigned to give an answer they'd probably agree. Upon being embraced the Kiasyd's body undergoes a series of changes; the bones of their fingers and toes lengthen between twenty and sixty percent their original length, the cartilage in their ears shifts to a tapered point, their entire frames grow between six and fourteen inches (~15 to 36 cm), often making them approach or exceed seven foot in height. Their eyes turn entirely black, and their skin an alabaster white that seems to glow a silvery-blue under the moon light. Their skin becomes so pale that it is possible, under the right lighting, to see the bones of some Kiasyd through their skin.
With a global population of between five hundred and a thousand, compounded with the fact that, for the most part, two Kiasyd will refuse to share the same city, few kindred are even aware of the Weirdlings, and those who are are often woefully misinformed. Due to their freakish appearance, the Kiasyd are often assumed to be of the Nosferatu, or due to their scholarly nature, assumed to be a Mekhet bloodline.
The Kiasyd are ultimately solitary creatures, with usually there only being one in a city (London is strange in this regard in that there are currently two Kiasyd resident there, an ancillae and an elder - the ancillae arrived just under a decade ago asking unseemly questions about the cull, and the elder has, for whatever reason, not made an issue of this "invasion of territory"); neophytes will remain with their sire until their sire deems them suitably prepared to face the world, a time span that might be a few years or many decades. At this point the Kiasyd tend to wander the world for many years as nomads, until eventually fining a city to settle in once their wanderlust has died down. Pretty much the only gathering of Kiasyd is the semicentennial gathering that, if rumour is to believed, the entirety of the world's Kiasyd population attends. Quite how they manage that is a mystery to the rest of the Kindred. This meeting serves only one real purpose, to exchange information, discoveries, and theories. Despite their solitary nature, any kindred that raises arms against one Kiasyd raises them against all of them; and a group of angry Kiasyd ancients is a force to be reckoned with indeed.
The majority of Kiasyd either join the Ordo Dracul (Sworn of the Dying Light to a man) or remain independent so as to stay out of the waste of time that is politics. A few join the Sanctified or the Circle of the Crone, but the more cynical accuse such a choice as being made purely to gain access to the rituals of Theben Sorcery and Cruac. Due to the moot it's quite common for Kiasyd of two hundred years or more to have knowledge of the Coils of the Dragon, Theben Sorcery, and Cruac - not that anyone would ever be able to prove who gave up these precious secrets.
Other Kindred that do know of the Kiasyd tend to fear and mistrust the them the more they hear of these strange vampires; tales that can make even the cruelest elder blanch. To hear the rumour-mill tell it, the Kiasyd can feed only on the blood of infants; or unspoiled virgins (that they then proceed to spoil), but they prefer children. They will flay their victims before feeding upon them, weaving the skin and hair of these innocent virgins into strange instruments to help them with their research, keeping the poor creature alive with foul magics all the while. Their otherworldly heritage comes not from the Good Folk, but from demons and the forces of Hell. Their odd appearance isn't because of mutation in their Vitae, but a God-given warning: These are not Kindred. They are other, and even if the Kindred are no longer human they still fear that which they do not understand. What disturbs the kindred the most is that whilst other Kindred may exult in their power and cruelty; they will rarely go to such lengths. As psychotic as a lot of elder Kindred may be, as much as they are comfortable in displaying their gruesome power, as much as they like to show how big and strong and hard and scary they are; the Kiasyd don’t seem to be particularly proud of what they do, they don’t see it as particularly scary. They see it as completely normal. They wouldn't have it any other way. Which, if any of the tales are true is something only the Kiasyd can tell, for they take great pains to discourage interlopers into their buisness.
Weakness, In-clan Disciplines, and Favoured AttributesEdit
The Kiasyd's weakness is most fey indeed. Weapons of cold iron cause aggravated damage, and merely being in contact with cold iron causes them indescribable pain.
The clan disciplines of the Kiasyd are: Dominate, Mytherceria, and Obtenebration (see Bloodlines: the Hidden - Khaibit). Due to their relative closeness with the Mekhet, Weirdlings often learn Obfuscate and Auspex as well.
The Kiasyd favoured attributes are Wits and Intelligence.
The Kiasyd can cleave truth from lies. The exact effect varies from vampire to vampire. Some Kiasyd experience bleeding from the eyes or ears when they hear a lie, while some Weirdlings’ eyes glow when told a falsehood. Whatever the effect, this power detects lies, not mistakes, meaning that a target has to know he is lying in order for this power to work. System: The character knows when a target is deliberately lying. No draw or expenditure is necessary for this power to work, but the character must deliberately activate it. Note that this power does not provide any insight into what the truth might be, nor does it enable the vampire to tell if a target is simply stating something false that he believes to be true.
Fae Sight ••Edit
The Kiasyd’s knowledge of magic isn’t just theoretical. Their strangely-coloured eyes are capable of detecting the arcane energies of the fae, as well as magic from other, more esoteric sources. System: The Kiasyd sees faeries and other faetouched mortals for what they really are, with no draw required. Additionally, the player can detect any form of magic, including magic from mages, werewolves, and other such odd sources. The character can recognize these for what they truly are, provided he has seen similar effects before.
Aura Absorption •••Edit
The Kiasyd is capable of seeing images of events and emotions past by touching an object or an area. However, unlike the Auspex Power “The Spirit’s Touch”, this power absorbs the images, making them harder for other beings with similar powers to access. Anyone attempting to use this power, Spirit’s Touch, or a similar ability to see what the Kiasyd has seen finds that the images are hard to hold, slipping through his mind’s eye like minnows through a stream. System: The player must make a Perception + Empathy + Mytherceria roll. The required number of successes is determined by the Storyteller based on the age of the impressions and the mental and spiritual strength of the person who left them. The number of successes determines the amount of information gained, both in terms of images of the scene when the object was being held or touched, and the nature of the person who was holding the object. One scene-type image and one aspect of the person’s identity (Aura, name, sex, age, etc.) becomes clear for each success the player garners on the roll. Anyone attempting to use this power or The Spirit’s Touch on the same object subsequently must accumulate more successes than the Kiasyd did to get any impression at all; that is to say, the first Kiasyd’s successes subtract from the number of successes scored by anyone trying to read the object thereafter.
Chanjelin Ward ••••Edit
The vampire inscribes a ward on an object, a location, or a person. That ward disorients and befuddles anyone that sees it, meaning that even if an intruder can penetrate a Weirdling’s security and steal an object of value, he’s unlikely to be able to find his way to the exit. Spiteful Kiasyd use these wards as punishment — one story tells of a Weirdling that drew a ward on an enemy’s shirt as dawn approached, and then watched (from safety) as the unfortunate vampire burned in the sun, unable to remember which way to run. System: The vampire creating the ward inscribes the symbol in a visible location — on a library door, bookshelf, or an individual’s clothing — and the player rolls Intelligence + Larceny + Mytherceria. Anyone entering the warded area or touching the warded object loses two dice from her Intelligence dice pools as long as she maintains contact with or proximity to the ward. Additionally, anyone seeing the ward becomes addled and lost unless she succeeds on a Wits + Investigation - the Kiasyd’s roll. The Kiasyd is immune to his own wards. The glyphs last for a duration indicated by the number of successes on the Intelligence + Larceny + Mytherceria roll:
Duration (successes achieved): One hour (1), One night (2), One week (3), One month (4), One year (5)
The Riddle Phantastique •••••Edit
The Kiasyd whispers a riddle to an opponent, and the riddle consumes his mind. The target can do nothing until he solves the riddle, and no one can help him — answers provided by others, even correct answers, fail to counteract this affliction. System: The player rolls Manipulation + Occult + Mytherceria. After a successful roll, the victim can do nothing but sit and ponder the Riddle until she accumulates three times the riddler’s successes. The subject rolls Wits + Occult (plus or minus the number of derangements the victim has, at the Storyteller’s discretion). She makes this roll as soon as she is told the Riddle, and then once per hour until she has gathered enough successes. Should the victim make a dramatic failure on a roll to solve the Riddle, she takes one level of lethal damage as the mystical enigma racks her body, and she loses all successes from the accumulated total. This damage cannot be healed until the Riddle has been solved. The riddler can end this trance by telling the victim the answer, but no one else can.
Mytherceria •, Obfuscate •, Obtenebrate •
Price: 5 xp
The Kiasyd can step into the Hedge. Due to the geography of the Hedge not matching up with that of Realspace, a Kiasyd could step into the Hedge in Tokyo, walk two hundred yards, and exit back into Realspace in Chicago. To step across the boundry, pay one Vitae, no roll is required; the Kiasyd can also open a passageway for a limited period of time, by spending two vitae and a willpower point the Kiasyd may open a door from Realspace to the Hedge or vice versa for a number of minutes equal to her Mytherceria score - anyone can cross through this passageway whilst it is open but closing it before the time period ends is only a free action. (And remember, the passageway works both ways, opening a way from Realspace could allow goblins to cross over into the mortal world, or even worse, one of the Gentry).
Mytherceria ••, Manipulation •••
Price: 15 xp
The Kiasyd can rip energy from mortals, living off their Glamour instead of blood. After forming at least a loose relationship with a mortal, the Kiasyd may roll Willpower + Manipulation to rip Glamour from the victim. Each success counts as one blood point gained (although the victim doesn't lose blood).For days (a number equal to the blood points gained) after the Ravaging, the mortal will be uncreative, passive and Banal. The character must choose the method with which they rip Glamour, such as destroying love or hope, or causing despair, when purchasing this devotion.
Mytherceria •, Obtenebrate •
Price: 6 xp
The Kiasyd can call upon minor mischievous chimera to plague those who displease him, causing minor pranks, although they are potentially dangerous. The Kiasyd concentrates for a moment and then calls up a swarm of near sentient spirits that swarm about the victim. Those with Fey Sight can easily see them as a cloud of tiny winged faeries. System: Using this power requires a Manipulation + Occult + Mytherceria roll. The number of success determines both the extent of the prank and its duration. Although the details vary depending upon the trick, generally one die penalty due to distraction per success, lasting one scene per successes can be used as a measuring stick. Examples include causing someone's hair to fall out, a banshee's wail (frightening all nearby, often deafening them for hours), blight crops (causing plants to die quickly), battering someone with stones (causing pebbles to rain upon opponents, the number of successes in bashing damage for a turn or 1 bashing per turn for a number of turns equal to successes), slipping (causing the victim to lose their balance and fall without a successful Dexterity + Athletics roll), and causing machines to malfunction (The more complex the machine, the greater and longer-lived the effect. Simple mechanical devices, like guns, are difficult to affect but electronics, such as computers, are simple to destroy).
Know the DanEdit
Mytherceria •••, Auspex •••
Price: 12 xp
the Kiasyd begins to see the threads of fate and detect the destiny, the Dan, of a subject. By preparing a mixture of their own blood and that of the subject with molten wax, the vampire can scry into the past, present, or even the future. The Darkling mixes her own blood with that of the person she wishes to view (it can be herself) and drinks a portion of it. She then pours it into a stone bowl full of molten wax. So long as the wax stays molten, the vampire can spy upon her subject. If she does not have wax or a bowl, the Kiasyd can still scry, but it is more difficult. System: Using this power costs the Kiasyd 2 blood points and 1 from the subject (which can be herself) along with 1 Willpower point if the subject is supernatural. Mixing the blood together and drinking it (the mixing does create a minor Vinculum after several uses); the Kiasyd then rolls Mytherceria + Occult. The Successes required depends upon how far in the future or the past the user wants to see. If the number of successes required is raised above 10 for any reason, the scrying fails.
Time Period or Circumstance (successes needed): One Day (1), One Month (2), One Year (3), Decades (4), Centuries (5), Lacking wax and bowl (+2)
The then Kiasyd rolls Mytherceria + Occult to determine the degree of detail. Sight is the only sense in the vision.
Detail of Vision (successes achieved): Mere Shadows (1), Shapes and Movement (2), Misty Images (3), Clear Visions (4), Detailed Picture (5)
Luck of the DevilEdit
Mytherceria ••••, Know the Dan
Price: 16 xp
Now the Kiasyd's connection with Dan is so strong that it works subconsciously, subtlety twisting fate and luck around the vampire. Things often just seem to go her way. Coincidences abound around the Kiasyd: the bullet just barely skims her skin, leaving her with but a scratch; she just manages to jump and roll over the car barrelling towards her; she makes the impossible shot, her bullet hitting the villain’s only weak spot. This is where the Kiasyd's legendary luck finds its source. System: At the beginning of each night, spend 1 vitae (in addition to the 1 needed to rise each night. Luck always has a price) and rolls Willpower. Each success allows the Kiasyd to change one die from a failure into a success or a success into an exploding die. This cannot be used on rolls on which the player has spent a Willpower point or on any Mytherceria roll. Storytellers have the final say about what rolls this can be used on.
Mytherceria •••••, Luck of the Devil
Price: 34 xp
The Kiasyd can now begin to truly manipulate the strings of fate like a master puppeteer. The goals and intentions of others are like putty in the hands of the vampire. Outcomes are bent, resources redirected, and plans thwarted or advanced merely by a simple tug. This does not come with a price, however. Unforeseen repercussions are inevitable, as no mind could conceive of all the possible ramifications of one "simple" twist. System: This power is very expensive, costing 1 Willpower and 8 blood points. The prohibitive cost almost necessitates that the Kiasyd be in a safe location and have some time to prepare. The roll to use the power is Manipulation + Occult + Mytherceria, and each success allows for 1 goal to be achieved, although more successes must be used to "balance out" the effects. One success accomplishes a minor task (getting a reasonable supply of money, gaining access to a closed library) with unforeseen repercussions (family death provides the money in the form of life insurance payments, the man who leaves the library unlocked loses his job). Five successes would allow for a minor goal to happen without any repercussions or for a major goal (the death of an enemy, receiving of an ancient fragment of the Book of Nod) to be accomplished with many unforeseen ramifications (the enemy was killed by a new and more powerful antagonist, the former owners of the fragment come looking for it...). Getting a number of successes in between results in a more favourable outcome.