- – One of many possible hymns of the Imperial Cult, reeking of Humanity Fuck Yeah and awesome, as quoted from "We Are One" by Triarii
In a broad sense, an Imperial Cult is any religion in which a head of state is worshipped as (a) God. Examples of real (historical) civilizations with an Imperial Cult include Ancient Egypt and the Japanese Empire. On /tg/, it almost always refers specifically to the state religion of Warhammer 40,000's Imperium of Man, and basically Catholic Juche in Space.
"Rejoice, for I bring you glorious news. God walks among us."
- – The first lines of the Lectitio Divinatus
It got its start from the Lectitio Divinatus, a spess bible written by Lorgar, Primarch of the Word Bearers, on the worlds conquered by his Legion during the Great Crusade and further perpetuated by believers amongst the crusade fleets. The Emperor, an advocate of atheism, did not approve, and betrayed, attacked, and humiliated Lorgar for it, which pushed his son into the worship of Chaos instead, which in turn ended up setting the Horus Heresy into motion. Afterwards, the Imperium worshiped the atheist even more than ever before. Just as planned.
After the Heresy, the Emperor was entombed in the Golden Throne and was not exactly in a condition to stop people from portraying him as a god, and it was soon discovered that humanity could be united by using this religion to control them far more effectively than the old Imperial Truth ever could. It's anyone's guess as to what he thinks about the whole mess now.
As befits Warhammer 40,000 the Imperial Cult is an irony against the Emperor's vision. The Emperor viewed religion has inherently bad/evil/prone to extremes, etc. However, the Imperial Cult preaches pretty good stuff. Kill mutants, witches, daemons, and aliens (all of whom seriously deserve it in 40k, though that is in general and individual innoncence is still shown when the Imperium needs to be shown as the however necessary hellhole it is), love your fellow human, and be tolerant of any other religion and culture that accepts the Emperor as top dog. The Imperial government is the source of all the bad things fans tend to forget the Imperial Cult had nothing to do with. This is a dark replication of real life views of religion. People like talking about how the Crusades were a hostile takeover of the Holy Land (it was actually to free Byzantine land the Muslims violently conquered and later was Christians and Muslims fighting side-by-side), the Inquisition was evil (in reality the Inquisition set the standards for modern criminal investigation and invented "humane treatment of prisoners", the secular governments were the ones torturing and killing heretics and the Spanish Inquisition's executions were purely for secular crimes like murder), witch hunts (which were Protestant and every Catholic involved was excommunicated), and forced conversion (in actuality, a few lords and kings required at least lip service to Christianity until the Pope told them to stop or else be excommunicated).
Secular governments preaching State Atheism, on the other hand, have invariably been totalitarian oppressive dictatorships straight out of 1984 and performed terrible atrocities against both their own people and other populaces. Without exception. Ever. At its worst, religion has never done anything a government hasn't done.
In the same way, the Imperial Cult isn't really guilty of anything bad by 40k standards. The Imperial government, however, is very much guilty of a whole lot of evil shit. Even the Age of Apostasy was still performed through the government. Which, by the way, implies Goge Vandire couldn't get the religious part to go along with his insanity and had to get the weight of government backing him.
Bad things are committed by religious people, sure, but only ever in violation of their religion's teachings and beliefs. The reason this matters for the Imperium is that the Imperium fused government and religion so they get the craziest extremists of both worlds throwing tantrums. If you were to remove religion from Warhammer 40,000 nothing would change except the aesthetics and quotes.
Speaking of, considering the consistency of every single purely secular (or at least hardcore anti clerical) government in history invariably being radically evil to the core, the Imperial Truth's "atheism or we kill you" approach implies quite a lot of very grim-bad things about just what the Emperor was doing during the Great Crusade and just what he was planning for humanity afterward. Perhaps Horus was right after all, minus the Chaos crap...
TL;DR : Humans are the real monsters.
The Imperial CreedEdit
Though the substance of the Imperial Creed can vary from world to world as the Imperium is extremely vast, the Creed itself is deceptively simple. This makes life easier for missionaries who are attempting to bring new planets into the fold as the original superstitions of each planet might be fundamentally incompatible with a convoluted religion with too many doctrines.
Regardless of any other deviations in belief, the basic tenets are as follows:
- Worship the God-Emperor of Mankind as the One-True-God, your Lord and Savior.
- Humanity is perfect and are the dominant form of life in the galaxy, everything else needs to be crushed or subjugated.
So at its simplest, a world can believe whatever it likes, so long as the Emperor is God or at the very least the head God, so on some worlds he might be a god of thunder and lightning, on others he might be the judge of the dead, on others he might just be an almighty paymaster, whilst on others he might be seen as a god of destruction who must be appeased with death... essentially each planet can have its own view of the Emperor. This makes the Imperial Cult an extremely tolerant religion when it comes to expressions of faith, which is ironically at odds with most observers' opinions on what the Imperial Creed is actually about. In addition, the Imperium is so vast and its history so expansive that just about any belief can be matched with something that already exists within the Imperium. Protector god? Space Marines. God of plenty? Agricultural world. God of fire? Salamanders. God of machines? Adeptus Mechanicus. The big guy who the plebs think is a god? Adeptus Custodes. And so on. On top of that, the Imperial Cult is perfectly willing to spend centuries or even millennia very slowly shifting a new world’s beliefs to fit closely enough to be accepted.
The Imperial Cult and the ImperiumEdit
Where people get confused is with the distinction between the Imperial Cult and the Ecclesiarchy, which are distinct from one another; just as the worship of the pagan Roman Emperor was to the specific rites carried out in Rome. Comparisons are often drawn to the Roman Catholic Church, but a more accurate comparison would be to pagan Rome, which tolerated or ignored the various beliefs of its subject peoples, as long as they acknowledged the Emperor as the high priest of their pantheons in his role as Pontifex Maximus.
The "Imperial Cult" is just a blanket term which covers a multitude of belief systems which are compatible with the Imperial Creed and are tolerated by the Imperium, such as the Cult of the Redemption, Cult of Pure Form, a large variety of Death Cults (but not some of the more extreme ones), as well as a wide variety of Feral or Death world belief systems that have been modified by missionaries to incorporate the Emperor in some form.
The Ecclesiarchy is just the state church, which attempts to bring a level of standardization to how people worship the Emperor and to make relations between worlds relatively frictionless. Unfortunately, even this is a difficult task. The sheer size of the Imperium ensures that various sectors can still have their own variations on how the creed is interpreted, and may have different doctrines or venerate different canonised saints because no one system can control every form of belief that pops up across the Imperium. Needless to say, this translates into a lot of people calling each other heretics even when their interpretations of the Imperial Cult are equally valid as far as the Ecclesiarchy is concerned.
Because of this, the issue of Heresy can occasionally come about where different factions disagree with each other on what constitutes acceptable worship of the Emperor, though as per the original tenets of the Creed it takes a considerable level of deviation to truly count as abominable. Typically, this is determined either by the adoption of tolerance (or worse, outright subservience) towards xenos or the outright worship of other deities that are obviously not the Emperor, especially the Chaos Gods. The accusation of heresy still does a pretty good job of silencing debates or threatening people whose views are considered to be too far from the norm, even if they wouldn't actually be viewed as heretics.
However, it can and does go a bit further than this in day to day life. As the state religion, it does its best to cement itself as the only acceptable way to behave. So whereas the Emperor is the only true god, the High Lords of Terra are the Emperor's living agents, and the Ecclesiarchal priests are the speakers of His word --all of them are to be obeyed without question, no matter how suicidal or pointless their commands may be. Which basically translates as "Do as you are told by your superiors, or else". This generally involves: Working in horrible conditions until you die. If you don't want to do so and are stupid enough to express your views along those lines, you will quickly find out the hard way that the Imperium considers treason to be the same as heresy, since both of those involve refusing to acknowledge the supremacy of the Adeptus Terra.
The only major deviation allowed in the Imperium is the Cult Mechanicus of the Adeptus Mechanicus (and Squats), thanks to the original Treaty of Mars allowing them to practice their own faith. Even so, this hasn't stopped tensions from popping up between the Mechanicus and the Ecclesiarchy. The commonly accepted compromise is that the Emperor represents the Machine God's physical avatar, the Omnissiah. While this compromise satisfies neither side, everyone goes along with it to keep the Imperium functioning as everyone ranked high enough (that is, not a lot) to be able to do something about it being at least somewhat aware of the intimidatingly insane shit they need to stand together to face. Even pious humans outside of the Adeptus Mechanicus, particularly Guardsmen, take the Machine Cult's beliefs seriously as their lives depend upon the technology they use. Squats on the other hand are completely exempted and they do ancestor worship, though the Emperor is considered the greatest and oldest ancestor, which he technically is.
Specific variants of the Imperial CultEdit
At mentioned there is a huge variation of the sects and subsects of the Imperial Cult, many of which are officially sanctioned, others less so, and just because an expression of faith is considered heretical or unofficial does make them any less of a faithful servant of the Emperor than the next belief structure. Though some of the bloodier cults are more susceptible to corruption than others.
- Confederation of Light: aka the "Ecclesiarchy proper" from M36 onwards. The Emperor sacrificed himself for you and that you should feel bad about it and follow the penitent principles of poverty, generosity and humility. Also heavily linked to the principles of Thorianism: that the
Holy GhostEmperor can work through inspired individuals and give rise to the Living Saints. What the average Imperial who has regular contact with the Adeptus Terra will be believing in as the vast majority of humans never leave their home planet and worship one of the many variations.
- Temple of the Saviour Emperor: The old Ecclesiarchy from M32-M36. If the Emperor is a god, and the Ministorum are his divinely appointed agents, then the Ministorum should get all the power and wealth. This belief was directly responsible for causing the barrel of laughs that was the Age of Apostasy. Some still believe in this doctrine, though they keep their mouths shut very tightly if they don't want a trip to the gallows.
- Cult of the Redemption: The Emperor sacrificed himself for your sins, therefore mankind needs saving from its sinfulness; PURGE IT WITH FIRE! Considered too extreme and fanatical for mainstream doctrine, though tolerated as they are willing to go to insane lenghts no normal can handle to squash heretics and aliens.
- Death Cults: There is no single "Death Cult", though most share the common belief that since the Emperor sacrificed himself for your sins, that debt needs to be repaid with sacrifices of Death, Blood or Pain, often in combination. This means their adherents are almost universally incredibly deadly since even the lowest layperson is likely to be able to gut you in any number of imaginative ways. Regularly found engaging heretics in a crusade. The cults who take it too far are susceptible to Chaos corruption.
- Cult of the Pure Form: Takes the doctrine of human purity very seriously. They believe that any tampering with the human body is a corruption and therefore oppose the Adeptus Mechanicus and reject any form of mechanical augmentation to the point that they will even rip it out of themselves after converting to the faith and causing themselves severe physical trauma. Considering even the most fanatical Sister of Battle can have bionics, this is pretty stupid.
- Cult of the Emperor Revenant: almost indistinguishable from the mainstream Imperial Cult aside from its focus how the Emperor gained immortality/divinity through his martyrdom. Most servants of the Ministorum can't see a difference between this and "proper" doctrines, although this belief serves as the basis for several Death Cults and Funerary Sects.
- Night Cult also called the Temple of the True Resurrection in different locations. Believes that you can also gain immortality in death just like the Emperor, but attempts various methods to make it actually happen, including raising the dead through sorcerous or technological means. Understandably, the Inquisition and Ecclesiarchy take dim views on this matter.